Our goal is to also safeguard mobility for the generations to come. That is why we strive to oﬀer our customers safe, eﬃcient and low-emission vehicles and services. A core element of our approach here is to achieve a drive-system mix that is tailored to the market requirements. Our “Road to Emission-free Driving” initiative deﬁnes the primary focal points for developing new, extremely fuel-eﬃcient and environmentally friendly drive-system technologies at all of our automotive divisions:
- further development of our vehicles equipped with state-of-the-art combustion engines in order to achieve signiﬁcant reductions in consumption and emissions,
- further eﬃciency increase through hybridization, and
- electric vehicles with battery and fuel-cell drive.
Our fuel roadmap. We are also involved in the research and testing of alternative fuels. We consider this another important option for avoiding emissions and becoming more independent of fossil energy sources. Our fuel roadmap points the way toward the optimization of today’s fossil fuels and the use of natural gas-based fuels, synthetic fuels and biofuels, as well as hydrogen and electricity generated from renewable sources. We believe that the use of biofuels is only beneﬁcial and promising if they are not produced in competition with food and their sustainability is assured. In the future, renewably produced synthetic fuels can also make an additional contribution to achieving the climate targets.
Fuel economy training. Fuel consumption can be reduced by as much as 10 percent through an economical and anticipatory driving style. Our Mercedes-Benz Eco Training programs for drivers of cars and commercial vehicles show how this can be done. All of our owner’s manuals also oﬀer tips on how to conserve fuel.
Eco Training for car drivers
Eco Training for truck drivers
Eco Training for ﬂeet managers and business owners
Eco Training for bus customers
CO2 emissions from our car fleet. In the year under review, the average CO2 emissions of the total ﬂeet of Mercedes-Benz Cars in Europe increased to 132 (2017: 125) g/km (NEDC).
The transition from the NEDC to the WLTP as the legally stipulated CO2 emission measurement cycle for individual vehicles has led to a signiﬁcant increase in our ﬂeet emission values. At the same time, the shift of sales from vehicles with diesel engines to cars powered by gasoline engines, as well as a further increase in sales of large SUVs and all-wheeldrive vehicles, have contributed to a higher CO2 value for our ﬂeet.
Because all vehicle models will have been certiﬁed in accordance with the WLTP by September 2019, we expect only a slightly lower CO2 value for our ﬂeet in 2019, in spite of further progress in reducing our vehicles’ fuel consumption. Our vehicle electriﬁcation measures are expected to lead to a dramatic decrease in our ﬂeet’s CO2 emissions in 2020.
The new WLTP test cycle. Since September 2017, all of our new car types in Europe have been certiﬁed according to the Worldwide Harmonized Light Vehicles Test Procedure (WLTP). This test procedure includes numerous changes compared to the previous New European Driving Cycle (NEDC). The changes include higher average and maximum speeds, more dynamic handling, gliding inertial masses instead of inertia classes, a smaller standstill share of total fuel consumption, and consideration of special equipment and the quiescent current requirement. Overall, these changes are leading to more realistic, but also higher, fuel economy values.
According to the legal requirements, until 2021 automakers must calculate the CO2 emissions of their vehicle ﬂeets in Europe by using a predeﬁned formula to convert the vehicles’ WLTP values back into NEDC values. This explains why every new vehicle is certiﬁed according to the WLTP although the European CO2 emission value of the automaker’s ﬂeet is still indicated as the NEDC value. The legislators want to ensure the comparability of the automakers’ ﬂeet values in the period until 2022, when a new limit value will come into force.
Further information about the WLTP
We continue to work hard to meet all statutory CO2 requirements, including the very challenging EU limits for 2021. However, reaching these ﬂeet targets will depend not only on oﬀering appealing and highly eﬃcient vehicles with electric drives, but also on our customers’ actually deciding to buy those models. In order to optimally position ourselves in this respect, we are systematically changing over our product range to the latest engine generations, and are also systematically electrifying our portfolio with plug-in hybrids and all-electric vehicles.
Fleet values in the US. In the US, ﬂeet values are regulated by two co-regulating standards for the reduction of greenhouse gases in vehicle ﬂeets: the Greenhouse Gas Standards (GHG) and the Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards (CAFE). Separate target values are set for cars and light commercial vehicles for each manufacturer. If a manufacturer does not meet the GHG standards, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) identiﬁes the vehicles from the manufacturer’s ﬂeet to which the overrun of the limit is attributable. A penalty payment is then imposed on all aﬀected models.
The CAFE ﬂeet value for each model year is determined on the basis of the number of vehicles sold and their respective fuel economy ﬁgures. The higher the value, the more eﬃcient are the vehicles in a ﬂeet. For every 0.1 mile per gallon below the speciﬁed limit, the manufacturer is required to pay the government a ﬁne of US$14.00 per vehicle produced for sale in the United States.
The CAFE ﬂeet ﬁgures for the CO2 emissions of Daimler vehicles in the United States have improved by 13 percent for cars and 15 percent for light commercial vehicles (forecast) over the last six years. Our target is to reduce the ﬂeet consumption of our cars and light trucks on the US market by 25 percent up to and including the model year 2019 as compared to 2012, which is the base year for the currently valid CAFE regulations. At the moment, we have yet to reach the deﬁned target corridor for these reductions.
Fleet values in China. In China, domestically produced and imported cars are assessed diﬀerently. Diﬀerentiations are also made between 16 weight classes. The ﬂeet fuel economy target relative to the weight of Daimler’s domestic ﬂeet was 6.8 liters/100 km, and the actual value achieved in 2018 was also 6.8 liters/100 km. The target for imported vehicles was 7.1 liters/100 km, and 7.7 liters/100 km was achieved. We have set ourselves the target of reducing the ﬂeet consumption of our cars in China by 25 percent in the period from 2012 (the base year of the current fuel economy regulations) to 2019. The current values show that we have already reached this target for domestic vehicles and that we have achieved more than 90 percent of the target for imported vehicles.
Legal limits on the fuel consumption and/or CO2 emissions of car ﬂeets exist today in many other markets as well, although the target values diﬀer from market to market. The relevant countries here include major sales markets for our products — for example Canada, Japan, South Korea, Mexico, Brazil, Switzerland, Australia and Saudi Arabia. We make every eﬀort to comply with the legal limits in all of these markets.
CO2 emissions of our vans. An EU directive on the emissions of vans with a curb weight of up to 2,585 kilograms entered into force in 2011. The regulation stipulates that beginning in 2017, the average emissions of such vans may not exceed 175 g CO2/km. As of 2020, the CO2 level will drop to 147 g CO2/km. Taking into account vehicle weight, Mercedes-Benz vans had to comply with a maximum CO2 ﬂeet level of 213 g CO2/km in 2018. However, our vans were already lower than that level in 2014. The projected level for Mercedes-Benz vans for 2018 is 187 g/km, and we expect to achieve a further reduction to 184 g/km in 2019. While the fuel consumption ﬁgures for several models are increasing slightly as a result of the introduction of the new WLTP testing procedure, this increase is being oﬀset by the launch of new and economical models, as well as the electric Vito van.
We had set ourselves the goal of reducing the CO2 emissions of our light commercial vehicles in the EU by more than 10 percent for the period 2014–2018; however, our reduction of 6 percent means we failed to achieve this goal.
CO2 emissions of our heavy-duty trucks in Europe and North America. In 2018 we were able to achieve 80 percent of our target of an average 20 percent reduction in the fuel consumption of our entire ﬂeet in the EU for the period 2005–2020. The associated reduction values were calculated on real-world standardized test tracks. Further eﬃciency enhancement measures are planned for 2019.
In North America, we achieved 80 percent of our target of a 10 percent reduction in the fuel consumption of a reference Cascadia for the period 2015–2019. We will also be launching a new fuel-eﬃciency package in North America in 2019.
Fuel consumption of our buses in Europe. We have achieved 90 percent of our target of a 20 percent reduction in the fuel consumption of our coaches over 18 tons GVW for the period 2005–2020 and 100 percent of the same target for city buses over 18 tons GVW. The introduction of the Citaro Compact Hybrid played a major role in the latter achievement. Here, fuel consumption is calculated using the realistic SORT cycle method.
Electric mobility for everyone. Mercedes-Benz Cars plans to signiﬁcantly expand its range of electric vehicles over the coming years. Daimler assumes that by the year 2025, electric models will account for between 15 and 25 percent of Mercedes-Benz Cars’ unit sales. To that end, we plan to launch more than ten all-electric cars in all segments, from the smart to the large SUV. We are investing approximately €10 billion in the expansion of our electric ﬂeet and more than €1 billion in the development of battery production. We are developing an independent modular and scalable electric-vehicle platform that will enable us to oﬀer a high degree of ﬂexibility in terms of variants and models.
EQ — our brand for electric mobility. All of the electric vehicles and electric mobility services oﬀered to Mercedes-Benz Cars customers have been consolidated under our new EQ brand, which stands for “Electric Intelligence.” Together with partners, we are investing in the establishment of a charging infrastructure, especially on major highways in Europe. We have designed our production network in a manner that allows us to manufacture our electric vehicles alongside the corresponding vehicles equipped with combustion engines on the same production lines at all of our key plants worldwide. This ensures that we can react with suﬃcient ﬂexibility to any changes in demand for electric vehicles. In line with producing electric vehicles, we are also expanding the production of batteries.
World premiere of the EQC (combined power consumption: 20.8-19.7 kWh/100 km; CO2 emissions combined 0 g/km)1. We presented our ﬁrst model under the EQ brand name — the all-electric Mercedes-Benz EQC on September 4, 2018, in Stockholm. The EQC oﬀers electric mobility suitable for everyday travel in combination with the quality and comfort typical of the Mercedes-Benz brand. This SUV has a compact electric drivetrain at both the front and rear axles, which gives the vehicle the handling of an all-wheel drive model. The two electric drive components have a combined output of 300 kW, which ensures dynamic handling. Thanks to its intelligent operating strategy, the EQC achieves an electric range of more than 430 kilometers (according to the WLTP). Only the front electric machine powers the vehicle in low to medium load conditions, while both electric machines act as generators when maximum recuperative deceleration needs to be achieved.
The EQC is equipped with an onboard charger (OBC) with an output of 7.4 kW as standard, making it suitable for charging at home or at public charging stations. Depending on the charging system used, the EQC can be charged with a maximum output of 110 kW. It takes around 40 minutes to charge the battery from 10 to 80 percent capacity.
Beginning in 2020, all smart models will be oﬀered exclusively as EQ models with an all-electric drive system: smart EQ fortwo (combined power consumption: 20.1–12.9 kWh/100 km; CO2 emissions combined: 0 g/km)2, smart EQ fortwo cabrio (combined power consumption: 20.2–13.0 kWh/100 km; CO2 emissions combined: 0 g/km2)2, and smart EQ forfour (combined power consumption: 20.8–13.4 kWh/100 km; CO2 emissions combined: 0 g/km)2.
In the future, we want drivers of EQ models to be able to charge their vehicles with an output of up to 350 kW on major European highways at fast-charging stations operated by IONITY, which manages Europe’s leading high-power charging network. Plans call for the electricity used to charge Mercedes-Benz EQC vehicles to be produced from renewable sources in order to keep the electric vehicles’ CO2 footprint small.
The GLC F-CELL (hydrogen consumption combined: 0.34 kg/100 km, CO2 emissions combined: 0 g/km, power consumption combined: 13.7 kWh/100 km)2 is another fully electric vehicle. This SUV, which has been delivered to the ﬁrst selected customers since late 2018, can run on electricity as well as hydrogen because it is equipped with a lithium-ion battery in addition to its fuel cell. Intelligent interplay between the battery and the fuel cell, as well as short refueling times, make the GLC F-CELL1a dynamic and practical vehicle for long-distance travel. Two tanks with a carbon-ﬁber outer layer in the vehicle ﬂoor hold 4.4 kg of hydrogen.
Thanks to 700-bar tank technology, the hydrogen tank can be reﬁlled within just three minutes – as quickly as one is used to ﬁlling the tank of a conventional car. With hydrogen consumption of approximately 1 kg/100 km, the GLC F-CELL1 achieves about 430 hydrogen-powered kilometers in the NEDC; in hybrid mode, up to 51 kilometers are added when the battery is fully charged. And driving dynamics are ensured by an output of 155 kW.
New electric DENZA 500. Daimler and BYD Automotive Industry presented the new battery-electric DENZA 500 in 2018. Developed especially for the Chinese market and produced by the Shenzhen DENZA New Energy Automotive joint venture, the new DENZA 500 oﬀers Chinese customers a comprehensive upgrade with a new exterior design, expanded connectivity services and an extended electric range. For example, DENZA drivers can now use the DENZA smartphone app, a WeChat account or their car’s navigation system to quickly locate any one of the more than 112,000 charging stations located throughout China. In addition, the new battery combined with a lower vehicle weight leads to greater energy eﬃciency and thus a range of up to 500 kilometers.
Driving and saving with electric cars. Those who want to drive economically with an electric vehicle should pay attention to a number of special aspects, because not everything that applies to vehicles with combustion engines is also helpful here.
Driving and saving with electric vehicles
Electriﬁcation of commercial vans has begun with the eVito. Mercedes-Benz Vans plans to oﬀer all its commercial van model series with electric drive systems. The initial step was taken with the launch of the mid-size eVito in November 2018. The eVito is the second all-electric production model from Mercedes-Benz Vans; the ﬁrst was the Vito E-Cell in 2010. With a range of 149–1893,4 kilometers, the mid-size van is thus perfect for inner-city deliveries and other commercial operations. The battery can be fully charged in about six hours. In addition, customers can choose between two options with regard to top speed: a maximum of 80 km/h for city traﬃc and urban areas, while also conserving energy and increasing the vehicle’s range, or a maximum of 100 km/h or 120 km/h if required for driving on highways. The electric Vito for goods transport will be followed by the eVito Tourer for passenger transport and the eSprinter in 2019.
Sprinter with electric drive and fuel cell. The Concept Sprinter F-CELL is a partially integrated concept camper that shows how fuel cell technology might be used in the future. The vehicle’s most important features are its ability to produce its own energy and guarantee locally emissionfree driving over a long range. This also makes the Concept Sprinter F-CELL ideal for other applications, such as long courier trips or use as a small intercity bus. The intelligent combination of a battery and a fuel cell enables the Concept Sprinter F-CELL to achieve a maximum electrical output of 147 kW and a torque of 350 newton-meters. A tank that can hold 4.5 kilograms of hydrogen ensures a range of approximately 300 kilometers, which can be extended to 500 kilometers through the use of additional tanks. The additional battery included as part of the vehicle’s plug-in concept boosts its range by a further 30 kilometers.
FUSO eCanter proves its worth. The ﬁrst FUSO eCanter rolled oﬀ the assembly line in Tramagal, Portugal, in the summer of 2017. The vehicle is currently being used in six cities in Europe, Japan and the US. Six high-voltage lithium-ion batteries with a capacity of 13.8 kWh each enable the light truck to achieve a constant power output of 175 hp at a torque of up to 390 newton-meters. The vehicle’s top speed is limited to 80 km/h — as is the case with all vehicles in this weight class. The batteries, which weigh around 600 kilograms, enable a range of more than 100 km (NEDC), which is enough for the requirements of daily urban distribution haulage in most cases.
Customers test the eActros. Commercial customers have been testing the eActros for various demand proﬁles and with diﬀerent body variants since September 2018. The idea behind the trials is to cooperate extensively with customers in order to gain practical experience with the electric truck. It’s particularly important to obtain reliable information on the battery and the range achieved by the 18- and 25-ton heavy-duty trucks. Our overall goal here is to make the eActros market-ready by 2021. The German Federal Ministry for the Environment (BMU) and Federal Ministry for Economic Aﬀairs and Energy (BMW) are sponsoring the development and testing of the heavy-duty trucks in short-radius distribution operations as part of the project Concept ELV2 (Concept Electric Truck in Heavy Distribution Transportation).
Freightliner puts electric trucks on the road. In June 2018, Daimler Trucks presented its ﬁrst all-electric production trucks for the North American market — the heavy-duty Freightliner eCascadia and the medium-duty eM2. The Freightliner eM2 106 is used for the local distribution of foodstuﬀs as well as for deliveries. In December 2018, the ﬁrst Freightliner eM2 was handed over to the customer Penske Truck Leasing Corp. Plans also call for an innovation ﬂeet of 30 all-electric trucks from Freightliner to go into operation in 2019. With the eCascadia, the eM2, the Saf-T-Liner C2 electric school bus from Thomas Built Buses and the FUSO eCanter, Daimler Trucks now oﬀers the widest range of electric commercial vehicles on the North American market.
Electriﬁcation of city buses. Daimler Buses is also focusing on the development of electric drive systems. The CO2 balance of buses can be further improved with battery operation and the use of other alternative drive systems. The Citaro hybrid was followed in 2018 by the eCitaro electric city bus. Plans now call for the production facility in Mannheim to be expanded into the Daimler Buses center for electric mobility. In addition, Daimler Buses operates an eConsulting program that oﬀers customers holistic advice on converting public transport bus ﬂeets to electric vehicles, and also provides follow-up services for bus operating companies.
New eCitaro with an extended range. The new eCitaro gets its energy from lithium-ion batteries with a total capacity of up to 243 kWh. This gives the all-electric bus a range of approximately 150 kilometers, which means it can already be used on around one-third of average city bus routes in Germany without the need for opportunity charging. The city bus is powered via an electric axle with electric motors mounted near the wheel hubs. A highly sophisticated thermal management system with high-tech components that include a heat pump reduces the amount of energy needed to control the interior temperature. If opportunity charging is required to extend the range, the electric bus can also be charged via a pantograph.
Range ﬁgures for all-electric city buses are often diﬃcult to compare because reference values are missing and the ﬁgures are often calculated under ideal conditions. In order to achieve reliable data for the eCitaro, we use the particularly challenging city driving cycle known as SORT2, which takes into account the energy requirements of auxiliary consumers as well. SORT is the name of a standardized drive test cycle for low-ﬂoor regular-service buses. On this basis, an eCitaro equipped with all of its batteries achieves a range of 150 kilometers in summer temperatures.
Given the current pace of battery technology development, we anticipate that we will be able to introduce an even more powerful battery system in the eCitaro in the future that will enable it to be used on around half of all city bus routes. The next step after that will involve the use of a range extender in the form of a fuel cell that produces electricity. This will increase the eCitaro’s operating range even further, thereby enabling it to be used as an all-electric vehicle for almost all current city bus operation proﬁles.
eMobility Consulting — consulting for transport operators. The new all-electric eCitaro city bus is part of Daimler Buses’ overall eMobility system. In order to support our customers with the transition to electric bus ﬂeets, our eMobility Consulting team oﬀers advice on request about diﬀerent use scenarios, taking into account bus route lengths, passenger numbers, energy requirements, range calculations, charging management and other aspects. In addition, our OMNIplus service brand oﬀers a tailored electric mobility service package that includes onsite services at customers’ maintenance and repair shops.
Partnership with Proterra. In September 2018, we reached an agreement to establish a strategic partnership with Proterra, which is a leading North American manufacturer of electric buses for use in local transport systems. The ﬁrst joint project involves the examination of potential synergies that might be generated through the electriﬁcation of school buses built by Daimler’s Thomas Built Buses brand. Such cooperation on an electric school bus gives both companies the opportunity to oﬀer new economical transport options with environmentally friendly and emission-free electric drive technology in this growing segment.
E-Mobility Group deﬁnes global electric strategy for commercial vehicles. Increasing restrictions on vehicles with combustion engines in cities, as well as more stringent emission limits, are promoting the development of alternative drive systems for commercial vehicles as well. We are a leading truck manufacturer and we also want to be a leader in truck electriﬁcation. With the eCanter from FUSO, the FUSO Vision One, two electric trucks from Freightliner, the Mercedes-Benz eActros and the Saf-T Liner C2 school bus from Thomas Built Buses, Daimler Trucks already has a very extensive portfolio of electric commercial vehicles. The establishment of the E-Mobility Group maximizes the eﬀectiveness of our investments in this strategically important technology. We plan to introduce a globally standardized electric architecture and develop the best solutions for truck batteries and charging and energy management systems.
2Information on power respectively hydrogen consumption and on CO2 emissions is provisional and has been determined by an external technical service for the certiﬁcation procedure in accordance with the provisions of the WLTP test procedure; the ﬁgures are non-binding and have been correlated with NEDC values. EU type approval and a certiﬁcate of conformity with oﬃcial ﬁgures are not yet available. The ﬁgures given above may deviate from the oﬃcial ﬁgures.
3Range depends on vehicle conﬁguration, especially on the selection of maximum speed limitation. Electricity consumption and range have been calculated on the basis of 692/2008/EC.
4Actual range also depends on individual driving style, ambient temperature, use of air-conditioning/heating etc., and may deviate from the stated ﬁgures.